Building mortar is a functional material and usually constitutes a whole together with the substrate. For example, masonry mortar makes brick, building block and other bulk materials bonded as a whole to bear the load together; plastering mortar is painted on the surface of substrate, playing a role in protecting the substrate and resisting external invasion in addition to obtaining a flat surface. Therefore, it not only requires that mortar should have certain strength, but also requires that mortar should have good water retention, adhesion, etc. Some mortar should also meet such requirements as crack resistance, freeze-thaw resistance, impermeability, shock resistance, waterproof property, high-temperature resistance, and thermal insulation. In order to meet these performance requirements, mortar not only contains ordinary raw materials such as cementitious materials, fine aggregates and mineral admixtures, but also usually should add some special materials, such as water retention thickening materials, tackifying materials, admixtures fibers, pigments, etc. The components of mortar range from four or five kinds to as many as up to a dozen, which makes the composition of mortar more complex and diverse.

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